Botanical name- Aegle marmelos Corr.
Family – Rutaceae
English- Golden apple, Stone apple
Parts uses- Roots, Bark, Leaves, Fruits
- The believed origin of Bael is India
- The Bael trees thrive well in dry, mixed deciduous & dry forests and soils of India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, the Philippines, Cambodia, Malaysia, Java, Egypt, Surinam, Trinidad, and Florida
- Bael is a subtropical species, although it can grow well in tropical environments.
- Bael can thrive well in high altitude as high as 1,200 m & withstand without any significant growth retardation at 50°C and −7°C
Active components & Their stages-
- Bael fruits contain Xanthotoxol, Imperatorin, Alloimperatorin, β-Sitosterol , Tannins, and Alkaloids such as Aegeline and Marmeline
- Tannin was found to increase during ripening, where the highest tannin content was found in fully ripe fruits
- Riboflavin, an essential vitamin, is only found in fully ripe fruits
- Ascorbic acid content decreases significantly with fruit ripening implying a marked reduction of antioxidant activity with maturation
- Bael has phenyl Proponoids, which are proven to be Anticancerous
- Unripe Bael fruits contains Marmelin as the key bioactive compound
- The main volatile compounds present in bael are Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes
- The gum of the surrounding environment of the seeds in bael fruit also contains phytochemicals
- Leaves contain Alkaloids, Mermesinin, Rutin, Phenylethyl Cinnamides, Anhydromarmeline and Aegelinosides, Sterols & Essential oils
- Stem barks and roots contain a Coumarin as Aegelinol
- Roots also contain Psoralen, Xanthotoxin, Coumarins, Tembamide, Mermin, & Skimmianine.
It contains 61.5 g of water, 1.8 g of protein, 1.7 g of minerals, 31.8 g of carbohydrates, and 1.19 mg of riboflavin/100 g edible portion. Food value is 88 calories/100 gm
- The fruit extracts of Bael have demonstrated protective effects on pancreatic tissues
- Aqueous extracts of Bael fruit leaves & its seeds has shown Hyperglycemic &Antihypoglycemic activity
- Bael leaf extracts inhibit Aldose Reductase activity, Anticataract activity & free radical scavenging activity.
- The compound Aegeline-2 in bael leaves is the responsible compound for antihyperglycemic activity
- The branches & trunk of the bael tree contain Feronia gum that reduces elevated blood glucose levels.
- It’s a part of essential Ayurvedic treatment for Diabetes
- Bael extracts have shown Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antiviral activities
- Antifungal activity is observed in essential oils extracted from bael leaves
- Anthraquinone is isolated from bael seeds, an essential oil extract from leaves that inhibits highly resistant Fusarium udum at 80% of efficiency under the concentration of 400 ppm.
- Antifungal activities were also confirmed against Aspergillus and Candida spp.
- Methanol extract of the fruits of Bilva decreased the intestinal propulsion
- The unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos affects the bacterial colonization of gut epithelium
- Bael reduces the growth and inhibits the release of toxins by harmful micro-organisms
- It controls the infection & reduces the frequency of stools
- Unripe fruits are used to control diarrhea
- Ripen fruits of Bael has been considered as the best laxative as it cleans & tones up the intestine
- Its regular use helps to evacuate fecal matter
- It is rich in Tannin & fibers which helps in constipation
- Juice prepared from leaf extracts act as a laxative agent
- Leaves are also used as a Veterinary medicine for wound and fodder for animals and stimulation of denervated nictitating membrane in anesthetize
For Blood Purification-
- It’s a powerful blood purifier that helps to eliminate toxins out of the body. It is a natural detoxifying agent, prevents Kidney & Liver dysfunctions
- As it contains anti-bacterial properties it helps to prevent acne & other skin-related issues.
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