Neem oil is extracted from the seeds of A. indica and has versatile medicinal and biological properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antifertility, immunostimulant, antipyretic, and acaricidal activities.
Active Constituents: A number of bioactive components have been extracted from neem (Azadirachta indica) essential oil, including Azadirachtin, Gedunin, Isomargolonone, Margolone, Margolonone, Nimbidin, Nimbin, Nimbolide, and Salannin
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1. Antibacterial: Antibacterial activity of neem oil against five Gram-positive bacteria such as cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, S. aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae; and two Gramnegative bacteria such as E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Hydrophobic compounds in neem oil fuse with lipid components of bacteria cell walls, thereby damaging cell walls and causing leakage of intracellular components.
2. Antifungal: The antimicrobial components in neem oil are reported to be potent inhibitors of the biosynthesis of aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin that is extracted from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.